Nursing Care Plan

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Common labs and Interpretations

Normal Value High Could Be: Low Could Be:
Hematology Men Women
WBC 4.0-11.0 thousand per uL 4.0-11.0 thousand per uL Inflammatory or infectious process, leukemia, neutropenia, possible autoimmune issue Aplastic anemia, side effect of chemo/radiation, bacterial infection, sometimes blood cancers
Bands 0%-8% 0%-8% Above 8% indicates a shift to the left, Acute infection  
Segs 50%-70% 50%-70% Bacterial infection, collagen diseases, Hodgkin's lymphoma Aplastic anemia, viral infection
150-400 thousand per uL 150-400 thousand per uL Acute Infections, chronic granulocytic leukemia, chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis, collagen disorders, polycythemia, postsplenectomy Thrombocytopenic, purpura, bleeding, lupus, pernicious anemia, hypersplenism, Wiskott-Aldrich disease, Bernard-Soulier disease
Hgb  13.5 -18 g 12-16 g Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Chronic kidney disease, pregnancy, sickle cell anemia
Hct 40%-54% 38%-47% COPD, High altitudes, polycythemia Anemia, hemorrhage
RBC 4.5-6.0 thousand per uL 4.0-5.0 thousand per uL Dehydration, high altitudes, polycythemia vera, severe diarrhea Anemia, leukemia, posthemorrhage
K+ 3.5-5.0 mEq/L 3.5-5.0 mEq/L Addison's disease, diabetic ketosis, massive tissue destruction, renal failure Cushings syndrome, severe diarrhea, diuretic therapy, gastrointestinal fistula, pyloric obstruction, starvation, vomiting
Na+ 135-145 mEq/L 135-145 mEq/L Corticosteroid therapy, dehydration, imparied renal function, primary aldosteronism Addison's disease, diabetic hetoacidosis, diuretic therapy, excessive loss from GI tract, excessive perspiration, water intoxication
Cl- 95-105 mEq/L 95-105 mEq/L Corticosteroid therapy, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, uremia Addison's disease, diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, vomiting
CO2 20-30 mEq/L 20-30 mEq/L Compensated respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis Compensated respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis
BUN 10-30 mg/dL 10-30 mg/dL Increase in protein catabolism from fever, stress, etc., renal disease, UTI Malnutrition, severe liver damage
9-11 mg/dL or 4.5-5.5 mEq/L 9-11 mg/dL or 4.5-5.5 mEq/L Acute osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma, vitamin D intoxication Acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency
Cr 0.05-0.5 ug/mL 0.05-0.5 ug/mL Dermatitis, renal failure, pulmonary cancer Impaired glucose tolerance, chronic illness (like HIV), malabsoprtion syndrome, unbalanced diet, on parenteral nutrition, pica, post-bariatric surgery
Glucose 70-100 mg/dL 70-100 mg/dL Acute stress, cerebral lesions, Cushings disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, pancreatic insufficiency Addison's disease, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism, insulin overdose, pancreatic tumor, pituitary hypofunction, postgrastectomy dumping syndrome
Albumin 3.5-5.0 g/dL 3.5-5.0 g/dL Dehydration Chronic liver disease, malabsorption, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome
PT-prothrombin time 10-14 sec. 10-14 sec. Deficiency of clotting factors I, II, V, VII and X, liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, warfarin therapy N/A
INR-International Normalized Ratio 0.8-1.2 normal adult, 2.0-3.0 if on Warfarin 0.8-1.2 High chance of bleeding, vitamin K deficiency, Von Willebrand disease, Hemophilia N/A
PTT-partial thromboplastin time 24-36 sec 24-36 sec Deficiency of clotting factors I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII, hemophilia, heparin therapy, liver disease N/A
Color Pale to dark yellow Pale to dark yellow See Chart  
Appearance Clear Clear Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, mucus makes urine look cloudy N/A
Spec. gravity 1.003-1.030 1.003-1.030 Albuminuria, dehydration, glycosuria Diabetes insipidus
PH 4.0-8.0 4.0-8.0 Chronic renal failure, compensatory phase of alkalosis, salicylate intoxication, vegetarian diet Compensatory phase of acidosis, dehydration, emphysema
Glucose 0 0 Diabetes Mellitus, low renal threshold for glucose absorption, physiologic stress, pituitary disorders N/A
20-50 mg/day 20-50 mg/day Marked ketonuria, uncontrolled diabetes, low-carb diet, starvation or eating disorders like anorexia, alcoholism, sometimes low levels are found in pregnant women N/A
Nitrates 0 0 UTI, bacterial infection N/A
RBCs 0 0 Inflammation, disease, kidney, ureters, urethra or bladder injury, strenous exercise, UTI, glomerulonephritis, kidney or bladder tumor, lupus N/A
WBCs 0 0 UTI, bladder tumor, inflammation of the kidneys, lupus, inflammation of vagina or foreskin of the penis. N/A
Casts 0 0 Inflammation or damage to the tubules, ischemia of the kidneys, metal poisoning (lead, mercury), heart failure, bacterial infection N/A
Protein 0 0 Kidney damage, an infection, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, lupus, or glomerulonephritis N/A
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pH 7.35-7.45 7.35-7.45 Alkalosis Acidosis
HCO3 22-26 mEq/L 22-26 mEq/L Acute osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma, vitamin D intoxication Acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency
SaO2 95%-98% 95%-98% Polycythemia Anemia, cardiac decompensation, respiratory disorders
  Arterial Venous    
PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg 42-52 mm Hg Arterial = Compensated metabolic alkalosis  Venous = respiratory acidosis Arterial = Compensated metabolic acidosis Venous = Respiratory alkalosis
PaO2 75-100 mm Hg 30-50 mm Hg Arterial = administration of high concentrations of oxygen  Venous = Heart failure Arterial = Chronic lung disease, decreased cardiac output

Urine Color Abnormalities
Red Blood from infection, strenous exercise, UTI, enlarged prostate, bladder stones, kidney disease, occassionally cancer.  Beets, blackberries, rhubarb, Ex-Lax, Thorazine, Diprivan, lead or mercury poisoning, porphyria.
Orange Vitamin C supplements, carrots, carrot juice, squash, Rifampin, Warfarin, Pyridium, laxatives, some chemotherapeutic agents, dehydration
Blue/Green Asparagus, amitriptyline, Indocin, Tagamet, phenergan, some multivitamins
Dark brown/tea colored Fava beans, rhubarb, aloe, antimalaria drugs like chlorquinine, primaquine.  Antibiotics like metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, laxatives containing cascara or senna, and the muscle relaxant methocarbarnol.  Some liver disorders, especially hepatitis and cirrhosis, tyrosinemia, acute glomerulonephritis.
Cloudy/Murky Kidney stones, UTI

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